Cannabis Dispensary As A Medicinal Plant
Cannabis dispensary contains various cannabinoids. These are used, among other things, for the treatment of refractory pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis see it here.
The real hemp (Cannabis sativa) belongs to the plant genus hemp (cannabis) in the family of the hemp plants (Cannabaceae). Usually the generic name cannabis is used, although cannabis sativa is meant.
Use as a medicinal plant
Records of the use of cannabis sativa ingredients for medicinal purposes – e.g. B. in pain and epilepsy – can be found in Indian literature as early as the 4th century BC. From here it spread across the Middle East to Europe.
The use of cannabis in the therapy of pain, neuralgia and other ailments took place in the 19th century. From 1898 onwards, it was replaced by the active ingredient acetylsalicylic acid and new synthetic drugs.
At the 2nd International Opium Conference in Geneva in 1925, cannabis dispensary was banned worldwide. The reasons were undetectable medical benefits, psychotropic side effects and psychological dependence.
Cannabinoids in Cannabis sativa
So far, over 100 different cannabinoids have been identified. However, their effects are largely unknown.
THC and CBD
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and the lesser-known cannabidiol (CBD) are probably responsible for the therapeutic effects . Other cannabinoids that occur in significant concentrations are cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN) and cannabichromene (CBC).
THC and CBD are mainly found in the form of their organic acids (THCA and CBDA) in cannabis flowers. For therapeutic use, these forms must be converted into their effective form, THC and CBD. The conversion usually takes place through heat decarboxylation, for example through evaporation, heating in oil or smoking.
The effect of cannabinoids arises from their binding to cannabinoid receptors (CB), which in humans and most animals exist in two forms:
CB1: Localization predominantly in the central nervous system CB2: Localization mainly in the periphery and on immune cells. The two forms of receptor must be activated by the body's own messenger substances. These messenger substances include the two endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide. The cannabinoids modulate the body's own endocannabinoid system.
Effects of cannabinoids
Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids appear to be involved in a wide variety of physiological processes.
The cannabinoid THC, traditionally prescribed most frequently in pain and palliative medicine, has a limited spectrum of activity. The following effects have been proven in studies for THC:
Pain relief Appetite stimulation Antiemetic effect Muscle relaxing effect. The medicinal use of THC can be accompanied by critical psychotropic effects.
The lesser known cannabinoid CBD has a much broader spectrum of activity than THC. The following effects have been proven:
Pain relief Anticonvulsant effect Anxiety-relieving effect Appetite stimulation Lowering blood glucose Antibacterial effect Antiemetic effect Reduced effect on the growth of tumor cells Antipsychotic effect Muscle relaxing effect Promoting effect on bone growth Anti-inflammatory effect Spasmolytic effects on the stomach and intestines Soothing effect on overreactions of the immune system Neuroprotective effect. Positive effects of CBD in the treatment of psoriasis and arteriosclerosis have also been proven.
THC and cannabis dispensary in combination
The complementary effects of THC and CBD enhance the analgesic effects of the two cannabinoids. The antiemetic, muscle relaxing and appetite stimulating effects of THC complement each other positively with the anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and neuroprotective effects of CBD. The unwanted psychotic effects of THC can be mitigated by using CBD. The mixture of THC and CBD in the ratio 1: 1 is called nabiximols.
Indications and application
There are no legal requirements for the indications that are approved for a prescription. This means that cannabis-containing drugs can be prescribed by law in the event of serious ailments and treatment failure after several established therapies.
Due to a change in the law , in addition to finished medicinal products, standardized cannabis dispensary extracts, dried cannabis flowers, dronabinol and nabilone (a fully synthetic THC analogue) have been approved for prescription since March 2017 .
Data from the statutory health insurance (GKV) on the prescription of cannabis as medicine showed pain (including spasticity in multiple sclerosis) as the main indication, up to 70%. A further 15% were attributable to the indications inappetence and cachexia.
Finished medicinal products
The finished medicinal products are absorbed according to the dosage form. The cannabis-containing finished medicinal products available on the German market are approved for the following indications:
Sativex spray for use in the oral cavity (contains cannabis sativa extract, CBD / THC in a ratio of 1: 1): symptom improvement in adult patients with moderate to severe spasticity in multiple sclerosis, unless this has responded adequately to another antispastic drug therapy. In addition, an initial attempt at therapy must show a clinically significant improvement in symptoms associated with the spasticity.
Application of cannabis flowers
Cannabis flowers can be inhaled or ingested orally. Inhalation can take place via smoking or vaporization using a vaporiser. Oral absorption takes place after extraction, for example in the form of pastries.
Use of cannabis extracts
Cannabis dispensary extracts are available as prescription drugs for oral use in the form of oily drop solutions, as capsules and as alcoholic inhalation solutions.
The pharmacological properties of cannabinoids in terms of onset of action, strength and duration of action differ depending on the intake. In the case of inhalation, very high concentrations of active ingredients in the blood and nervous system occur within minutes, but for a limited period of time. In the case of oral and transmucosal use, the active ingredient concentration is reached over a period of several hours. The peak concentration is significantly lower.